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The struggle for the control of the seas by human societies, empires, and countries has continued for a long time, because the seas are a very important means of communication for all mankind. The jurists divided between a supporter of freedom of the seas and not subjecting them to the sovereignty of states and a supporter of subjugating them, but the controversy has been resolved to divide the seas into parts of some of them subject to the sovereignty of the coastal state, namely (internal waters and territorial waters), and others open to all countries with the imposition of some restrictions, namely (adjacent waters and region The exclusive economic and high seas) and the last is an area open to all coastal and landlocked countries and no country can claim its sovereignty over it. The topic was discussed according to the analytical and descriptive approaches in the political geography of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982, which came to regulate all matters related to the seas and all maritime areas and for all coastal and landlocked countries, as this agreement included about (320) articles and (9) appendices. The study reached conclusions, the most important of which is that the internal waters, which extend for a distance of 3 nautical miles calculated from the baseline, are an integral part of the state’s territory, and therefore they are subject to the state’s authorities, its internal jurisdiction, its administrative, legislative, and judicial oversight, and the state’s sovereignty extends over its territorial sea for a distance not exceeding 12 miles Maritime starts from the baseline, and this sea is subject to the sovereignty of the coastal state that is restricted to the right of maritime passage to foreign ships and not stopping therein. As for the rest of the other maritime areas (adjacent waters, the exclusive economic zone and the high seas) are governed by the United Nations agreements Sailor for the year 1982.

human societies, waters, the seas.

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