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Abstract


EDUCATION REFORMS AFTER TANZIMAT
The Tanzimât literally meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. Modern education process has shaped in this historical period. Education was based on madrassas (a kind of university) but the institutions were established through the Foundations (Vakıf). The military schools were opened after the Tanzimât. Elementary school was made compulsory and students were sent to Europe for the first time. The French revolution affecting Europe has also affected the Ottoman Empire. Erncümeni Daniş (shown as the science academy) was founded in 1851. General Regulations of the Ministry of Education (Maarif-i Umumiye Nizamnamesi) was published in 1867. During this period, the basic ideology has been seen as “Ottomanism” to prevent the disintegration of the Empire and also much better it was understood the importance of education in this period. Grading has been adopted in educational institutions and the importance of language has also gained an importance in this period. On the other hand it also laid the foundations of the Vocational and Technical Education. Mülkiye Mektebi (Public Administration School) was opened in 1879 with the aim of public officials. During this period basement of the “nation state” understanding was laid. Reform activities in education were initiated from the university. It has been given the importance of education for the girls and women. It also planned agricultural education and training programs have been developed in this period. The idea of the state’s dissolution can be prevented through the education came to the fore in The Tanzimât era. The compulsory religious education in schools has been removed after The Tanzimât and it is not mandatory for non-Muslims. The Ottoman education system began to modernize with the Tanzimât. In this process, some reforms have been successful while others fail.
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Keywords
Tanzimât, Education, Reconstruction


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