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THE ROLE OF GENERAL VIOLIN BOWING RULES WITHIN IRAQI PLAYERS
The violin is the most famous smallest and common musical instrument in the family of bowing strings, and this musical instrument has gone through stages of development in terms of its manufacture or methods of playing it. Since the beginning of the classical music period, the violin has played a prominent role in performing many of the main and minor melodies in classical orchestral music, due to the high performance and technical capabilities of this instrument. Playing violin must use the bow, which shows developed according to the performance styles and the variety of melodies and compositions, the bow represents about 80% of the performance and technique of the violin. The researcher found a necessity in studying the position of the ascending and descending bowing of Iraqi violinists as an important part of the violin performance in playing classical compositions and oriental melodies of various and artistic forms. The research also aims to identify the general rules for the basics of upward and downward bowing of the violin and the basis for ensuring the ideal performance in playing the violin. The theoretical context is divided into two sections: The first section: The history of the violin, which reviews a historical overview of the origin of the violin and the development of its manufacture, the parts of the violin and the method of generating the sound from it. While the second section reviews the performative and technical methods and a detailed explanation of the way it was notated, how it performed, the role of the bow in playing the violin, in addition to the main dynamic symbols and their relationship to the bow direction. Then the researcher selected a sample of well-known Iraqi violinists, and a piece of music was distributed to them containing the most violin common performative and technical terms, then the three musicians placed up the ascending and descending violin bows, then the researcher analyzed their bowing symbols in order to identify the general rules of violin bowing for Iraqi musicians and their commitment to the general global rules in violin bowing. The researcher got the results of his research that shows the Iraqi musician’s commitment to a high rate in determining the universally recognized position of the violin bowing to ensure finest performance. Then the researcher wrote recommendations and suggestions, followed by a list of sources, references and interviews.

Keywords
violin famous musical instrument, bowing strings, classical music period, Iraqi violinists, violin history, parts of the violin, main dynamic signs.

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